Male CrossFit-trained athletes seem to be more prone to shifts in macronutrient utilization during submaximal intensity exercise under a ketogenic diet than are female athletes. The ketogenic diet is becoming a popular nutritional model among athletes. However, the relationship between its use and metabolism during exercise seems to have not been fully investigated. "If not done correctly, a ketogenic diet carries important risks, including nutrient deficiencies, hypovolemia, hypokalemia, kidney stones, and gout," said Ludwig. "However, these risks can be minimized with a properly formulated diet."